Most children who undergo heart surgery do not need any treatment for the rest of their lives. Their condition is cured. Some (approx 10%) need a second operation and in some rare cases 3 or 4 additional surgeries to continue leading a normal life. Whenever one operation has been done, the pericardium that surrounds the heart stays open. When the heart heals from the surgery, it sticks to the surrounding tissues and bones, including the sternum, which was opened to reach inside the chest. This makes the second opening of the chest hazardous. They are called popularly as re-do operations, and only seasoned surgeons undertake this. Over the last 10 years we have reduced the incidence of adverse events to less than 2 in a hundred.